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- Created 2012-03-12
") is the language of ancient
, which was spoken in southern
) from at least the 4th millennium BC. During the 3rd millennium BC, a very intimate cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the
ians, which included widespread bilingualism. The influence of Sumerian on
(and vice versa) is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence. This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium as a
(area of linguistic convergence).
Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language around 2000 BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate), but Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century AD. Then, it was forgotten until the 19th century, when
inscriptions and excavated tablets left by these speakers. Sumerian is a
from Wikipedia (last updated: 05 December), licensed under
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Sumerian Language Page
Akkadian Unicode Font
Sumerian: What We Know and What We Want to Know, by Claus Wilcke
Introduction to Sumerian grammar by Daniel A. Foxvog
''A Descriptive Grammar of Sumerian'' by Abraham Hendrik Jagersma
Sumerisch (An overview of Sumerian by Ernst Kausen, in German)
Sumerian language article
Chapter VI of ''Magie chez les Chaldéens et les origines accadiennes''
grammar of "Akkadian" *''Dictionaries'' **http://psd.museum.upenn.edu/epsd/nepsd-frame.html Electronic Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary (EPSD)
Elementary Sumerian Glossary by Daniel A. Foxvog (after M. Civil 1967)
Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0, by John A. Halloran
The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature
CDLI: Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative
Online publications arising from the ETCSL project
Structural Interference from Akkadian in Old Babylonian Sumerian by Gábor Zólyomi
Other online publications by Gábor Zólyomi
The Life and Death of the Sumerian Language in Comparative Perspective
Online publications by Cale Johnson
The Origin of Ergativity in Sumerian, and the Inversion in Pronominal Agreement: A Historical Explanation Based on Neo-Aramaic parallels, by E. Coghill & G. Deutscher, 2002
Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary
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