Give us Feedback!
Set the category for this topic
Arts & Culture
Biology & Nature
Business & Companies
Food & Drink
Geography & Travel
Health & Medicine
History & Events
Religion & Philosophy
Society & Politics
Technology & Computing
Transportation & Vehicles
- Created 2012-02-26
is a natural body consisting of layers (
) that are primarily composed of minerals, mixed with at least some organic matter, which differ from their parent materials in their texture, structure, consistency, color, chemical, biological and other characteristics. It is the unconsolidated or loose covering of fine rock particles that covers the surface of the earth. Soil is the end product of the influence of the climate, relief (slope), organisms, parent materials (original minerals), and time. In engineering terms, soil is referred to as
, or loose rock material that lies above the 'solid geology'. In horticulture, the term 'soil' is defined as the layer that contains organic material that influences and has been influenced by plant roots, and may range in depth from centimetres to many metres.
Soil is composed of particles of broken rock (parent materials) which have been altered by physical, chemical and biological processes that include
. Soil is created from the alteration of parent material by the interactions between the
. It can also be considered a mixture of mineral and
materials in the form of solids, gases and liquids. Soil is commonly referred to as "earth" or "
"; technically, the term "dirt" should be restricted to displaced soil.
Soil forms a structure filled with pore spaces and can be thought of as a mixture of solids, water, and gases. Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three-
system. Most soils have a density between 1 and 2 g/cm³. Little of the soil of planet
is older than the
and none is older than the
are preserved from as far back as the
from Wikipedia (last updated: 20 May), licensed under
What do you know about this topic?
Please make sure to only add personal information and experiences about this topic that complements the article above. Comments or opinions should be posted at the bottom of the page by clicking
. Thanks alot for contributing!
...or create an Experience Page
Currently no applications. Add an application using the contribute box to the right.
Let People Vote
Ask a Question
World Reference Base for Soil Resources
ISRIC - World Soil Information (ICSU World Data Centre for Soils)
World Soil Library and Maps
Wossac the world soil survey archive and catalogue
Soil Science Society of America
USDA-NRCS Web Soil Survey
National Soil Resources Institute UK
Plant and Soil Sciences eLibrary
Soil and Soil Testing
Estimating Soil Texture By Feel
Salt and water balance of the soil