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- Created 2012-04-06
people originally of
. Today, most Seminole live in
with a minority in Florida; there are three
federally recognized tribes
and independent groups. The Seminole nation emerged in a process of
out of groups of Native Americans, most significantly
from what are now northern Florida,
, who settled in Florida in the early 18th century. The word
is a corruption of
, a Spanish term for "runaway" or "wild one. "
During their early decades, the Seminole became increasingly independent of other Creek groups and established their own identity. They developed a thriving trade network in the
second Spanish periods
(roughly 1767–1821). The tribe expanded considerably during this time, and was further supplemented from the late 18th century by
and escaped slaves who settled near and paid tribute to Seminole towns. The latter became known as
, although they kept their own
culture of the
. They developed the
language, which they spoke through the 19th century after the move to Indian Territory.
Seminole culture is largely derived from that of the Creek; the most important ceremony is the
Green Corn Dance
; other notable traditions include use of the
. As the Seminole adapted to Florida environs, they developed local traditions, such as the construction of open-air, thatched-roof houses known as
s. Historically the Seminole spoke
After the United States achieved independence, its settlers increased pressure on the Seminole, leading to the
(1818–1858). As a result of the wars and national policy, through 1842 most Seminoles and Black Seminoles were
west of the
. During the
American Civil War
, most of the Oklahoma Seminole allied with the
, after which they had to sign a new treaty with the U.S., including freedom and tribal membership for the Black Seminole. Today residents of the reservation are enrolled in the federally recognized
Seminole Nation of Oklahoma
, while others belong to unorganized groups.
Perhaps fewer than 200 Seminoles remained in Florida, but they fostered a resurgence in traditional customs and a culture of staunch independence. In the late 19th century, the Florida Seminole re-established limited relations with the U.S. government and in 1930 received 5000 acre of reservation lands. Few Seminole moved to reservations until the 1940s; they reorganized their government and received federal recognition in 1957 as the
Seminole Tribe of Florida
. The more traditional people near the
received federal recognition as the
Tribe in 1962. The Oklahoma and Florida Seminoles filed land claim suits in the 1950s, which were combined in the government's settlement of 1976. The tribes and Traditionals took until 1990 to negotiate an agreement as to division of the settlement, a judgment trust against which members can draw for education and other benefits. The Florida Seminole founded a high-stakes bingo game on their reservation in the late 1970s, winning court challenges to initiate
, which many tribes have adopted to generate revenues for welfare, education and development.
from Wikipedia (last updated: 25 May), licensed under
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Seminole Nation of Oklahoma official website
Seminole Tribe of Florida official site
Seminole Clothing Patchwork
The Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida official site
Hitchiti-Mikasuki Creation Story
Annual Seminole Nation Days Celebration
Aponke Resources for the study of Hitchiti and Mikasuki
History of the Seminole People of Florida by Patricia R. Wickman, Ph.D.
Seminole Doll Making
John Horse and the Black Seminoles, First Black Rebels to Beat American Slavery
The Seminole Indians of Florida
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