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- Created 2012-02-26
is the act of taking a portion, or
, of one
and reusing it as an
or a sound recording in a different song or piece.
Originally developed by
ians working with
, who physically manipulated
s on a
by the late 1960s, the use of tape loop sampling influenced the development of
and the production of
hip hop music
was the first
genre based around the art of sampling - being born from 1970s
s who experimented with manipulating vinyl on two turntables. The use of sampling in popular music spread with the rise of
in the mid-1970s to early 1980s, the development of
electronic dance music
in the 1980s, and the worldwide influence of hip hop since the 1980s on genres ranging from
. Sampling is now most often done with a
, originally a piece of hardware, but today, more commonly a
vinyl emulation software
may also be used, and
s continue to sample using traditional methods. The inclusion of sampling tools in modern digital production methods increasingly introduced sampling into many genres of popular music, as well as genres predating the invention of sampling, such as
and various forms of
Often "samples" consist of one part of a song, such as a rhythm
, which is then used to construct the beat for another song. For instance, hip hop music developed from DJs repeating the breaks from songs to enable continuous dancing. The
break and the
, both brief fragments taken from
recordings of the 1960s, have been among the most common samples used in dance music and hip hop of recent decades, with some entire subgenres like
being based largely on complex permutations of a single one of these samples. Samples from rock recordings have also been the basis of new songs; for example, the drum introduction from
When the Levee Breaks
" was sampled by the
, among others. Often, samples are not taken from other music, but from spoken words, including those in non-musical media such as movies, TV shows and advertising.
Sampling does not necessarily mean using pre-existing recordings. A number of composers and musicians have constructed pieces or songs by sampling field recordings they made themselves, and others have sampled their own original recordings. The musicians in the
band Portishead, for example, made some use of existing samples, but also
, manipulated and sampled musical parts they themselves had originally played in order to construct their songs.
The use of sampling is controversial legally and musically. Experimental musicians who pioneered the technique in the 1940s to the 1960s sometimes did not inform or receive permission from the subjects of their field recordings or from copyright owners before constructing a musical piece out of these samples. In the 1970s, when hip hop was confined to local dance parties, it was unnecessary to obtain copyright clearance in order to sample recorded music at these parties. As the genre became a recorded form centred around rapping in the 1980s and subsequently went mainstream, it became necessary to pay to obtain legal clearance for samples, which was difficult for all but the most successful DJs, producers and rappers. As a result, a number of recording artists ran into legal trouble for uncredited samples, while the restrictiveness of current US copyright laws and their global impact on creativity also came under increased scrutiny.
Aside from legal issues, sampling has been both championed and criticized. Hip hop DJs today take different approaches to sampling, with some critical of its obvious use. Some critics, particularly those with a
outlook, have expressed the belief all sampling is lacking in creativity, while others say sampling has been innovative and revolutionary. Those whose own work has been sampled have also voiced a wide variety of opinions about the practice, both for and against sampling.
from Wikipedia (last updated: 19 June), licensed under
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The Sample Clearance Fund: A proposal
SCORCCiO Sample Replays
Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works
Hip hop production
Sampler (musical instrument)
Sampling (signal processing)
WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act
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