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- Created 2012-02-16
was the stage of the
in which millions of people from
were shipped to the
as part of the
Atlantic slave trade
. Ships departed
for African markets with manufactured goods, which were traded for purchased or kidnapped Africans, who were transported across the Atlantic as slaves; the slaves were then sold or traded for raw materials, which would be transported back to Europe to complete the voyage. Voyages on the Middle Passage were a large financial undertaking, and they were generally organized by companies or groups of investors rather than individuals.
The "Middle Passage" was considered a time of in-betweenness for those being traded from Africa to America. The close quarters and intentional division of pre-established African communities by the ship crew motivated captive Africans to forge bonds of kinship which then created forced transatlantic communities. These newly established bonds greatly impacted and altered African identity and culture within each community. It was a significant contributing aspect to the slaves' survival of the "Middle Passage" and carried into their life in America.
Traders from the
received the enslaved Africans. European powers such as
, as well as traders from
, took part in this trade. The enslaved Africans came mostly from eight regions:
Bight of Benin
Bight of Biafra
, West Central Africa and Southeastern Africa.
An estimated 15% of the Africans died at sea, with
s considerably higher in Africa itself in the process of capturing and transporting indigenous peoples to the ships. The total number of African deaths directly attributable to the Middle Passage voyage is estimated at up to two million; a broader look at African deaths directly attributable to the institution of slavery from 1500 to 1900 suggests up to four million African deaths.
For two hundred years, 1440–1640, Portuguese slavers had a near monopoly on the export of slaves from Africa. During the eighteenth century, when the slave trade transported about 6 million Africans, British slavers carried almost 2.5 million.
from Wikipedia (last updated: 12 December), licensed under
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About.com: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
History of Africa
European colonization of the Americas
Atlantic slave trade
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