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- Created 2012-02-18
(ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈlʊtɐlang; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German
, professor of theology and seminal figure of a reform movement in 16th century
, subsequently known as the
. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted
, with his
in 1517. His refusal to retract all of his writings at the demand of
Pope Leo X
in 1520 and the
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Diet of Worms
in 1521 resulted in his
by the Pope and condemnation as an
by the Emperor.
Luther taught that
and subsequently eternity in heaven is not earned by good deeds but is received only as a free gift of God's grace through faith in
as redeemer from sin and subsequently eternity in hell.
challenged the authority of the
Roman Catholic Church
by teaching that the
revealed knowledge from God and opposed
all baptized Christians to be a holy priesthood
. Those who identify with these, and all of Luther's wider teachings, are called
His translation of the Bible
) made it more accessible, which had a tremendous impact on the church and on German culture. It fostered the development of a standard version of the German language, added several principles to the art of translation, and influenced the writing of an English translation, the
King James Bible
s influenced the development of singing in churches. His marriage to
Katharina von Bora
set a model for the practice of
, allowing Protestant priests to marry.
In his later years, in deteriorating health, Luther became increasingly antagonistic towards
, writing that Jewish
s and homes should be destroyed, their money confiscated, and liberty curtailed. These statements and their
influence on antisemitism
have contributed to his controversial status.
from Wikipedia (last updated: 10 December), licensed under
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''Booknotes'' interview with Martin Marty on ''Martin Luther'', April 11, 2004.
Christianity and antisemitism
Propaganda during the Reformation
Theology of Martin Luther
Lutheran Marian theology
University of Halle-Wittenberg
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