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- Created 2012-03-12
is the set of rules by which information encoded within genetic material (
sequences) by living
. Biological decoding is accomplished by the
, which links amino acids in an order specified by mRNA, using
(tRNA) molecules to carry amino acids and to read the mRNA three
at a time. The genetic code is highly similar among all organisms, and can be expressed in a simple table with 64 entries.
The code defines how sequences of these nucleotide triplets, called
, specify which amino acid will be added next during
. With some exceptions, a three-nucleotide codon in a nucleic acid sequence specifies a single amino acid. Because the vast majority of
s are encoded with exactly the same code (see the RNA codon table), this particular code is often referred to as the canonical or standard genetic code, or simply
genetic code, though in fact some variant codes have evolved. For example, protein synthesis in human
relies on a genetic code that differs from the standard genetic code.
Not all genetic information is stored using the genetic code. All organisms' DNA contains regulatory sequences, intergenic segments, chromosomal structural areas, and other
that can contribute greatly to
. Those elements operate under sets of rules that are distinct from the codon-to-amino acid paradigm underlying the genetic code.
from Wikipedia (last updated: 21 May), licensed under
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The Genetic Codes → Genetic Code Tables
Codon Usage Database
History of deciphering the genetic code
American Scientist: Ode to the code (Origin)
Alphabet of Life (Origin)
Symmetries in the genetic code
Interactive Genetic Code Map at the University of Utah
Human Genome Project
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