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First French Empire
- Created 2012-02-26
First French Empire
), also known as the
Greater French Empire
, was the empire of
of France. It was the dominant power of much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Emperor of the French
L'Empereur des Français
, lɑ̃.pʁœʁ dɛ fʁɑ̃.sɛpron) on 18 May 1804 and crowned Emperor on 2 December 1804, ending the period of the
, and won early military victories in the
War of the Third Coalition
, and allied nations, notably at the
Battle of Austerlitz
(1805) and the
Battle of Friedland
Treaty of Tilsit
in July 1807 ended two years of bloodshed on the European continent.
The subsequent series of wars known collectively as the
extended French influence over much of Western Europe and into Poland. At its height in 1812, the French Empire had 130
, ruled over 44 million subjects, maintained an extensive military presence in
, and the
Duchy of Warsaw
, and could count Prussia and Austria as nominal allies. Early French victories exported many ideological features of the
Seigneurial dues and seigneurial justice
were abolished, aristocratic privileges were eliminated in all places except Poland, and the introduction of the
throughout the continent increased legal equality, established jury systems, and legalized divorce. However Napoleon also placed relatives on the thrones of several European countries and granted many noble titles, most of which were not recognized after the empire fell.
Historians have estimated the
death toll from the Napoleonic Wars
to be 6.5 million people. In particular, French losses in the
in Spain severely weakened the Empire; after victory over the Austrian Empire in the
War of the Fifth Coalition
(1809) Napoleon deployed over 600,000 troops to attack Russia in the catastrophic
French invasion of the Russian Empire
in 1812. The
War of the Sixth Coalition
saw the expulsion of French forces from Germany in 1813.
d in 11 April 1814. The Empire was briefly restored during the
period in 1815 until Napoleon's defeat at the
Battle of Waterloo
. It was followed by the
House of Bourbon
from Wikipedia (last updated: 12 December), licensed under
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Napoleon, His Armies and Battles
First Empire Magazine Covering the History, Battles and Uniforms of Napoleonic era
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