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- Created 2012-02-27
(juːˈkæri.oʊt or juːˈkæriət) is any
and other structures (
) enclosed within
. Eukaryotes are formally the
. The defining membrane-bound structure that sets eukaryotic cells apart from
cells is the
, within which the genetic material is carried. The presence of a nucleus gives eukaryotes their name, which comes from the
, "good") and κάρυον (
, "nut" or "kernel"). Most eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound
s such as
. In addition, plants and
are eukaryotes, such as
. All multicellular organisms are eukaryotes, including
in eukaryotes is different from that in organisms without a nucleus (
). There are two types of division processes. In
, one cell divides to produce two genetically identical cells. In
, which is required in
cell (having two instances of each chromosome, one from each parent) undergoes
of each pair of parental chromosomes, and then two stages of cell division, resulting in four
). Each gamete has just one complement of chromosomes, each a unique mix of the corresponding pair of parental chromosomes.
Eukaryota appears to be
, and so makes up one of the three domains of life. The two other domains,
s and have none of the above features. Eukaryotes represent a tiny minority of all living things; even in a human body there are 10 times more microbes than human cells. However, due to their much larger size, their collective worldwide biomass is estimated at about equal to that of prokaryotes. Eukaryotes first developed approximately 1.6–2.1 billion years ago.
from Wikipedia (last updated: 03 December), licensed under
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Eukaryotes (Tree of Life web site)
Prokaryote versus eukaryote, BioMineWiki
Evolution of sexual reproduction
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