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- Created 2012-02-20
, also known as the
was a period of severe
s that greatly damaged the ecology and
s during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply
methods to prevent wind erosion (the
) caused the phenomenon. Extensive deep plowing of the virgin
during the previous decade had displaced the native, deep-rooted
es that normally trapped soil and moisture even during periods of drought and high winds. Rapid mechanization of farm implements, especially small gasoline tractors and widespread use of the
, significantly impacted decisions to convert arid grassland (much of which received no more than 10 in of precipitation per year) to cultivated cropland.
During the drought of the 1930s, the unanchored soil turned to
that the prevailing winds blew away in clouds that sometimes blackened the sky. These choking billows of dust – named "black blizzards" or "black rollers" – reached such
New York City
and often reduced visibility to a meter (about a yard) or less.
reporter Robert E. Geiger happened to be in
Boise City, Oklahoma
to witness the "
" black blizzards of April 14, 1935; Edward Stanley, Kansas City news editor of the Associated Press coined the term "Dust Bowl" while rewriting Geiger's news story.
The drought and erosion of the Dust Bowl affected 100000000 acre that centered on the
s of Texas and Oklahoma and touched adjacent sections of New Mexico, Colorado, and Kansas.
The Dust Bowl forced tens of thousands of families to abandon their farms. Many of these families, who were often known as "
s" because so many of them came from Oklahoma, migrated to
and other states to find that the
had rendered economic conditions there little better than those they had left. Author
The Grapes of Wrath
Of Mice and Men
about such people.
from Wikipedia (last updated: 04 December), licensed under
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Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture – Dust Bowl
Africa Data Dissemination Service
Out of the Dust
Farming in the 1930s
"The Great Depression, Displaced Mountaineers in Shenandoah National Park, and the Civilian Conservation Corps (C.C.C.)"
Voices from the Dust Bowl: The Charles L. Todd and Robert Sonkin Migrant Worker Collection, 1940–1941
Surviving the Dust Bowl, Black Sunday (April 14, 1935)
The Bibliography of Aeolian Research
Black Sunday, April 14, 1935, Dodge City, KS
The Dust Bowl
''The Dust Bowl'' photo collection
NASA Explains "Dust Bowl" Drought
1936 North American heat wave
Rain follows the plow
The Plow That Broke the Plains
Great Plains Shelterbelt
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