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- Created 2012-03-08
This article is a subset article of
intelligence cycle security
(CI) refers to efforts made by
s to prevent hostile or enemy
organizations from successfully gathering and collecting intelligence against them.
National intelligence programs
, and, by extension, the overall defenses of nations, are vulnerable to attack. It is the role of
security to protect the process embodied in the intelligence cycle, and that which it defends. A number of disciplines go into protecting the intelligence cycle. One of the challenges is that there is a wide range of potential threats, so threat assessment, if complete, is a complex task.
Many governments organize counterintelligence agencies separate and distinct from their intelligence collection services for specialized purposes. In most countries the counterintelligence mission is spread over multiple organizations, though one usually predominates.
There is usually a domestic counterintelligence service, usually part of a larger
law enforcement organization
such as the
Federal Bureau of Investigation
has the separate
, also known as
, which does not have direct police powers but works closely with law enforcement called
that can carry out arrests, do searches with a warrant, etc.
's major domestic security organization is the
, which principally came from the Second Chief Directorate of the USSR
Third Chief Directorate
of the KGB USSR.
separates the functions of general defensive counterintelligence (
), security intelligence (the intelligence preparation necessary to conduct offensive counterintelligence), law enforcement intelligence, and offensive counterintelligence.
Military organizations have their own counterintelligence forces, capable of conducting protective operations both at home and when deployed abroad. Depending on the country, there can be various mixtures of civilian and military in foreign operations. For example, while offensive counterintelligence is a mission of the US
National Clandestine Service
, defensive counterintelligence is a mission of the
U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (DSS), Department of State
, who work on protective security for personnel and information processed abroad at US Embassies and Consulates (EDIT: Also incorrect).
The term counter-espionage is really specific to countering
, but, since virtually all offensive counterintelligence involves exploiting human sources, the term "offensive counterintelligence" is used here to avoid some ambiguous phrasing.
from Wikipedia (last updated: 17 May), licensed under
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X-2 Counter Espionage Branch
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