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- Created 2012-02-22
(often shortened to
) is the comprehensive process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. It involves activities such as analysis, understanding, and generically solving such problems resulting in an
, verification of requirements of the algorithm including its correctness and its resource consumption, implementation (or coding) of the algorithm in a target programming language,
, and maintaining the
, implementation of the build system and management of derived artefacts such as machine code of
s. The algorithm is often only represented in human-parseable form and reasoned about using logic. Source code is written in one or more
s (such as
, etc.). The purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate performing a specific task or solve a given problem. The process of programming thus often requires expertise in many different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms and
, programming (the
) is regarded as one phase in a
software development process
There is an on-going debate on the extent to which the writing of programs is an
, or an
discipline. In general, good programming is considered to be the measured application of all three, with the goal of producing an efficient and evolvable software solution (the criteria for "efficient" and "evolvable" vary considerably). The discipline differs from many other technical professions in that
s, in general, do not need to be licensed or pass any standardized (or governmentally regulated) certification tests in order to call themselves "programmers" or even "software engineers. " Because the discipline covers many areas, which may or may not include critical applications, it is debatable whether licensing is required for the profession as a whole. In most cases, the discipline is self-governed by the entities which require the programming, and sometimes very strict environments are defined (e.g.
United States Air Force
and security clearance). However, representing oneself as a "Professional Software Engineer" without a license from an accredited institution is
illegal in many parts of the world
Another on-going debate is the extent to which the programming language used in writing computer programs affects the form that the final program takes. This debate is analogous to that surrounding the
, which postulates that a particular spoken language's nature influences the habitual thought of its speakers. Different language patterns yield different patterns of
. This idea challenges the possibility of representing the world perfectly with language, because it acknowledges that the mechanisms of any language condition the thoughts of its speaker community.
from Wikipedia (last updated: 04 December), licensed under
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