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- Created 2012-02-26
is a part of the
which was under the control of European colonial powers, through trade and conquest. The first European power to arrive in India was the army of
Alexander the Great
in 327–326 BC. The
s he established in the north west of the subcontinent quickly crumbled after he left. Later,
trade was carried
between Indian states and the
by Roman sailors who reached India via the
, but the Romans never sought trading settlements or territory in India. The
between India and Europe was one of the main types of trade in the world economy and was the main catalyst for the
period of European exploration
The search for the wealth and prosperity of India led to the accidental "discovery" of the Americas by
in 1492. Only a few years later, near the end of the 15th century,
Vasco da Gama
became the first European to re-establish direct trade links with India since Roman times by being the first to arrive by circumnavigating Africa (1497–1499). Having arrived in
, which by then was one of the major trading ports of the eastern world, he obtained permission to trade in the city from
Trading rivalries brought other European powers to India. The
, France, and
established trading posts in India in the early 17th century. As the
disintegrated in the early 18th century and then the
became weakened after the
third battle of Panipat
, the relatively weak and unstable Indian states which emerged were increasingly open to manipulation by the Europeans through dependent "friendly" Indian rulers.
In the later 18th century
and France struggled for dominance through proxy Indian rulers and also by direct military intervention. The defeat of the redoubtable Indian ruler
in 1799 marginalised French influence. This was followed by a rapid expansion of British power through the greater part of the subcontinent in the early 19th century. By the middle of the century, the British had already gained direct or indirect control over almost all of India.
contained the most populous and valuable provinces of the
and thus became known as "the jewel in the British crown".
from Wikipedia (last updated: 02 December), licensed under
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List of archaeological remains of Dutch, Danish and Portuguese India settlements
gateway.for.india: British history
Kingdom of Travancore
Kingdom of Mysore
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