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- Created 2012-02-22
), also referred to sometimes as the
), is a
that forms part of the boundary between
. The Bosphorus, the
Sea of Marmara
, and the
strait to the southwest together form the
. The world's narrowest strait used for
, the Bosphorus connects the
Sea of Marmara
(which is connected by the Dardanelles to the
, and thereby to the
The limits of the Bosphorus are defined as the connecting line between the lighthouses
in the north and between the
Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri
in the south. Between the limits, the strait is 31 km long, with a width of 3329 m at the northern entrance and 2826 m at the southern entrance. Its maximum width is 3420 m between Umuryeri and Büyükdere Limanı, and minimum width 700 m between Kandilli Point and
. This part of the strait is a dangerous point for maritime traffic: a 45-degree course alteration is required, and the current can reach 7 to. To the south, at
, the necessary course alteration is 80 degrees. All the dangers and obstacles characteristic of narrow waterways are present and acute in this critical sea lane. At the above mentioned turns (Kandilli and
) where significant course alterations have to be made, the rear and forward sights are totally blocked prior to and during the course alteration. Ships approaching from the opposite direction cannot be seen round these bends. The risks posed by geography are increased dramatically by the heavy ferry traffic across the strait, linking the European and Asian sides of the city.
The depth of Bosphorus varies from 13 to in midstream with an average of 65 m. The deepest location is between Kandilli and
with 110 m. The most shallow locations are off Kadıköy İnciburnu on the northward route with 18 m and off Aşiyan Point on the southward route with 13 m.
The shores of the strait are heavily populated, straddled as it is by the city of
in excess of 12 million inhabitants) which extends inland from both coasts.
The name comes from
(Βόσπορος), which the ancient Greeks analysed as
'means of passing a river, ford, ferry', thus meaning '
', which is a reference to
from Greek mythology who was transformed into a cow and condemned to wander the earth until she crossed the Bosphorus where she met
. Although it has been known for a while that the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara flow into each other in an example of a density flow, findings of a study by the University of Leeds in August 2010 reveal that there is in fact an underwater channel of high-density water flowing across the floor of the Bosphorus (caused by the difference in density of the two seas), which would be the sixth largest river on Earth if it were to be on land.
from Wikipedia (last updated: 04 December), licensed under
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