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- Created 2012-03-12
is a device consisting of one or more
s that convert stored chemical
into electrical energy. Each battery consists of a negative electrode material, a positive electrode material, an electrolyte that allows ions to move between the electrodes, and terminals that allow current to flow out of the battery to perform work.
(single-use or "disposable") batteries are used once and discarded; the electrode materials are irrevesibly changed during discharge. Common examples are the alkaline battery used for
s and a multitude of portable devices.
) can be discharged and recharged multiple times; the original composition of the electrodes can be restored by reverse current. Examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium ion batteries used for portable electronics. Batteries come in many shapes and sizes, from miniature cells used to power
s and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby power for
s and computer
According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates
in sales each year, with 6% annual growth.
Batteries have much lower
(energy per unit mass) than common
s such as
. This is somewhat mitigated by the fact that batteries deliver their energy as electricity (which can be converted efficiently to mechanical work), whereas using fuels in engines entails a low efficiency of conversion to work.
from Wikipedia (last updated: 09 December), licensed under
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The Electropaedia on Battery Chemistries and How They Work
HowStuffWorks: How batteries work
Comprehensive knowledge base about battery technology, battery applications, chargers and ancillary equipment
DoITPoMS Teaching and Learning Package- "Batteries"
State of charge
State of health
Depth of discharge
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