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- Created 2012-02-22
Imperator Caesar Divi F. Augustus
, 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was the founder of the
and its first
, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.
Born into an old, wealthy
family, in 44 BC Augustus was
posthumously by his maternal great-uncle
Gaius Julius Caesar
following Caesar's assassination. Together with
, he formed the
to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at
, the Triumvirate divided the
among themselves and ruled as
. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its members: Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the
Battle of Actium
by Augustus in 31 BC.
After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward facade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the
, and the
. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including
supreme military command
, and those of
. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself
("First Citizen"). The resulting
became known as the
, the first phase of the
The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the
The Roman Peace
). Despite continuous wars or imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and one
year-long civil war
over the imperial succession, the Mediterranean world remained at peace for more than two centuries. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing
, expanded possessions in
, expanded into
, and completed the conquest of
Beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of
s, and made peace with the
through diplomacy. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed
networks of roads
with an official
system, established a standing army, established the
, created official
for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign.
Augustus died in 14 AD at the age of 75. He may have died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son (also stepson and former son-in-law),
from Wikipedia (last updated: 19 May), licensed under
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Cassius Dio's Roman History: Books 45–56, English translation
Gallery of the Ancient Art: August
Humor of Augustus
Life of Augustus
Suetonius' biography of Augustus, Latin text with English translation
The Res Gestae Divi Augusti
The Via Iulia Augusta: road built by the Romans; constructed on the orders of Augustus between the 13–12 B.C.
The Achievements of Augustus Caesar
"Augustus Caesar and the Pax Romana"
"De Imperatoribus Romanis"
Octavian / Augustus
Gaius Octavian (Rome character)
Augustan literature (ancient Rome)
Julio-Claudian family tree
Temple of Augustus
Indo-Roman trade and relations
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